Skin Care Tips You Should Know Busy women are always handling a lot of tasks at home as well as their jobs leaving little time for them to take care of their skin. They thus end up neglecting themselves leading to bad skin. Wrinkles, acne, dull skin, breakouts and many more are effects that one gets as a result of failing to take care of their skin. The following tips are effective for one who wants to take care of their skin. After waking up every morning, one should wash their face using a gentle cleanser. One needs to put into consideration their skin tone or type when getting or purchasing a cleanser. One’s skin can either be oily or dry depending on one’s skin type. Those people who have oily skins should use facial cleanser that is gentle foaming. Using a cleanser that does not lather on the other hand is suitable for those ladies with dry skin. If at all you have acne, it doesn’t limit you from using facial cleanser as there are acne-fighting cleansers made available for you. Using toner is also important for one to do from time to time. This is essential as it helps to clean any oil or dirt residue left behind by the cleanser. In order to help one prevent pimples from appearing on one’s face, one can use a toner. Moisturizing is another skin care tip for all ladies to make use of. Everyone can moisturize themselves regardless of their skin tones or types When one goes to their workplace, they should always have with them facial wipes or cleansing sprays in their bags. During your workday, one sweats a lot and they have a lot of oil from time to time which one has to deal with. Those who work under the sun experience this more. In order to deal with such situations, one should be ready with sunscreen as well as facial wipes.
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After a hard day at work, one can come home and cleanse their faces in order to get rid of all the sweat and oil on one’s skin as well as fatigue. One can also apply night cream on their faces and gently massage it on themselves. Cream that is anti-aging and has anti-oxidants is the best for one to use in order to achieve skin care accordingly.
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Having a face mask is also very essential for a person especially during their free days such as weekends. In order to take good care of your skin, one should drunk a lot of water. One should also make sure they get enough sleep each night and avoid taking a lot of junk food.
Web Design-How To Make Your Web Design Successful If you are thinking about creating a website , then it is important that you have a clear idea of the process. You could have a successful website and earn a lot of profit from it when you did your research before creating one. Many people who invested in creating a new website without knowing the step by step process, usually end up failing. Below are the tips in having a successful website design: A. Check the market and check you competitors
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Before you start your web design or hire a web designer, it is best if you check your competition and also the market Look at the other websites and check if their web design is similar to your plan.
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You should brainstorm different design ideas When you figure out what is the purpose of your website, the next thing that you should do is to think about the design of your website. You must think of the perfect way in promoting your products or message. Most people view websites that are eye catching and are really interesting. The best way for you to figure out what design would you like for your website is by checking other websites. If you have a web designer, you could make a list of the things that you like and dislike for your website. Look at the color, design, font of the text and images, when you are looking at other websites. You should also think about the functionality of the pages in the site. With this type of list, it can help you decide on what do you want for your website and it also helps the web designer apply your vision. C. You must determine your budget You need to make a decision on how much can you afford for your website, then when you made your decision you could choose a web designer that is in your budget. You could contact different web design companies and ask for the price of their service, so you could have an idea on what is the general price of web design. You must keep in mind that good web design is not cheap. There are plenty of people who have websites that is not good and eye catching because they do not spend that much in their website design. If you really want your website to look really professional you need to spend on it, the good thing about this is that you will attract more site visitors. D. Choosing the right web designer There are plenty of web design companies who shows their portfolio of the works that they have done in the past on their own website.
Searching for the Perfect Acne Face Wash for You Perhaps you are suffering from acne and are desperate to eliminate it, and then what you need to do is to find the best acne face wash that is out there. One should believe that these really do work. If you are one of those people who are finding ways to remove their acne, then you surely have come across various types of acne face washes out there. However, one should know that not all of these products are suitable for you. Know that the type of skin you have and the nature of your acne problem are very important things to take into consideration. TV commercials and various advertisements regarding the different acne face washes out there can be seen on magazines, books, television, internet and all other mediums that are out there. The number would really baffle you, which is why you should open your mind to the reality that there are a lot of products that are out there.
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It is vital for you to understand what you really need out of these products, so that you will be guided in searching for the perfect one for you. See to it that you will never prioritize quantity over quality with this one, because it would surely have a damaging effect on you if you keep on choosing a product that has a lower quality. The face washes that will cost you a little more money is most of the time better for you, so you better get to rethink your ideas and start prioritizing quality over quantity.
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People should know that this is not only talking of acne removal because it also provide you with a fresh and pink layer of skin for you to look younger, making you better looking in all aspects. Young ones are not the only ones who can get to use this, but these can also be used by the elderly ones that have acne, making this a product that is suited for all ages and for all people. It is difficult to find an acne face wash that is perfectly suited for you, which is why you need to be more careful and extra vigilant in choosing a product that is perfect for you. Spending time in to talk to your friends or relatives and see if they can recommend you in using a certain product are a wise thing to do. Question them regarding their experiences in using a product. See to it that you know what their ingredients are. With this, you can know more about acne treatment. Also see to it that it is recommended by your dermatologist, to prove its legitimacy. Choose an appropriate one to help you get rid of acne once and for all.
Do you believe everything happens for a reason? Luckily, I do. Trust me I have not always been that way. I have certainly had my share of feeling like I was a victim. But, as I have mentioned in the past, I have been going through this enormous shift over the last year. One of the shifts I have been making has been moving from victim to warrior.
Now, don’t get me wrong, I still have my pity party moments. I think everyone needs those now and again to stay sane. The difference is, when I am feeling that way, I stop and analyze what I am feeling and why. Let me share a little bit of my story with you.
When I was eleven years old, my father became gravely ill with cancer. It was certainly not an experience I would ever wish on anyone. In effect, I became an adult at eleven. When I could have taken the situation we were in and turned into another source of stress for my mom, I analyzed the situation and recognized the fact that my parents needed my help. Luckily my father survived after a very long battle and is alive and well today.
When we talk about that time as a family there are mixed emotions, there are times even today we wonder, “why us?” But, I have to admit, one of the things I have always said is, although it was not a pleasant time in our life, it made me who I am today. I honestly believe that I would not be where I am today without that experience. It made me strong. It made me tough. It made me a go getter. I never touched drugs because I saw firsthand the effect they had on my dad (with chemotherapy).
Honestly, I have no idea how my life would have turned out had I not had that experience, but I am thankful for it. Yes, you read right, thankful. Granted, I would not want to live through it again, but I have chosen to take the largest of obstacles in my life and turned it into a positive.
How can you do that? What is happening in your life that may seem like an obstacle now, but may end up being an opportunity for you to grow in the long run? I see it on almost a daily basis in my life. I might lose a client one day, but get another client a few days later that is a better fit. You might blow out a tire and meet an amazing business prospect at the repair shop. When I had to have surgery a couple of years ago, I took the down time as a sign that I needed to slow down altogether.
When life seems to be throwing you lemons, stop and examine them. Maybe there is an opportunity to make lemonade and heck, why not open a lemonade stand?!
Personal Growth and Development – Your Analytical Training Can Become Barriers to Personal Growth and Development
Contrary to what most of us know, an analytical mind can become barriers to personal growth and development.Peter Drucker, one of the great thinkers of modern management, observed that young executive stalled in their career because they lack the essential skills to walk into a situation and grasp the whole picture at once – the gestalt. It is amazing how much details we failed to notice, when our perception sensibility is clouded by our pre-occupation with analysis.
In typical business occasions, our thoughts are usually quick to perform analysis that often gets distorted by our values, judgments, and experience. As our mind is busy processing the information, we are distracted from hearing, sensing and seeing the obvious that is just in front of us. Without a trained mind, we fail to notice the change in voice tone, tightening of jaw muscle, tension in the shoulder, or subtle change in the eye. We often hear the spoken words without getting the real messages.
Excessive analysis does hamper perceptual sensibility, and can potentially become barriers to personal growth and development.However, it is incorrect to say that analytical skill is not important. The converse is true. Analytical thinking is one of key essential skills needed to dissect and solve complex problems.
However, we need to use our analytical skill as a tool effectively, and not become its slave. If we don’t restraint its use, our analytical skill can really become barriers to personal growth and development. We need to let this capacity of our mind take a back seat, when it comes a time where other more powerful essential skills are required.What are the other more powerful essential skills?Whether you are an executive or entrepreneur, your career success hinges on the ability to quickly grasp the key issues among fuzzy noises in critical situations.
Your performance in all aspects of life can be improved if you master three essential skills to enhance your perceptual sensibility – Instinct, Creativity and Imagination.InstinctOur instinct is powerful tools that can help us gain a lot more information than our usual senses. It can tell us things in our environment that directly affects our well-being. Sometime, certain information or thoughts just come to our mind, prompting us to take certain actions that greatly impact the course of our life. Instinct is the higher kind of knowledge that comes from direct experience. When instinct is at work, we just know it without any need to figure anything out or to analysis the situation.
Our heightened sense of awareness receives all the information we need without us trying too hard.CreativityCreativity runs opposite to analysis. It is only possible when the mind thinks in a non-linear way. Creativity can help us solve problems at a higher level that is impossible with analysis. Besides increasing our effectiveness in work, it also adds color and beauty to our life.Many people never thought that they are creative. We failed to realize that everyone has a mind that is a huge creative force. Creativity is a natural and constant process of our mind. However, creativity is often inhibited by rules and restrictions that are imposed on it externally.
This is in stark contrary with analysis, where rules and restriction are the basis of its function.Creativity can be nurtured with a spirit of adventure, as well as the willingness to experiment and change the rules. A simple way to kick-start the development of creativity is to make changes to things that we do day in and day out as a matter of rules or habits. In our daily life, there are plenty of opportunities to find new ways to do the same old things. By consciously looking out for ways for improvement, we activate the creative genius within us to start exercising its creative muscle.ImaginationImagination is the language of the subconscious mind, which defies analysis. It helps direct our creative force, and lead our thoughts into a multi-dimensional paradigm. There are two ways to use our imagination: Reflective or Active.Using imagination in a reflective way tune your attention inward to develop intuition. On the other hand, using imagination in an active way helps build your vision and creates the outcome you want.Concluding Remarks: It is clear that instinct, creativity and imagination runs on a totally contrasting mental paradigm from analytical thinking. In fact, the development of the above three essential skills will be obstructed when we put our analytical skill on over-drive.
These powerful resources are within everyone one of us. With constant practice, you can develop these skills to enhance your perception sensibility, which plays a critical role in your personal growth and development. Now, are you convinced that your analytical skills can become barriers to personal growth and development?
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It is natural the human desire for success in health and long life. But how to live longer, to be vital and energetic until old age and not to start the day with a handful of pills? For that you need to take care of yourself and start changing your habits. Is never too late to do something for yourself. You can start with small steps, but make them regularly, they can take you far.
- Maintain a healthy body weight without major differences in weight;
- Eat balanced and rational – eat more fruits and vegetables;
- Reduce salt consumption;
- If you drink alcohol, reduce it to a minimum or reduce it to one glass of red wine in the evening;
- Build your daily routine that includes time for you – enough rest time for hobbies, care for your loved ones and time for socializing and communication;
- 6. Do not stay front of the TV or the computer for too long;
- Find time for enough sleep. Since we only have a 24-hour day in our busy days we have left sleeping in the background. But for good sleep, it is better to build habits such as going to bed at the same time every night and create an appropriate sleep environment in your bedroom;
- 8. Stay away from various mental addictions and bad habits – alcohol, drugs, tobacco, gambling, food, shopping and more.
- Keep moving. Even if you don’t have enough time for active sports activities look for other ways to activate your muscles;
- Do not miss preventive medical examinations and be interested by your health;
- Avoid taking many unnecessary medications and supplements;
- Drink plenty of water. Drink at least a liter and a half fresh water a day, possibly up to 2-3 liters of water and herbal teas before eating. In the best case drink ate least a glass of water half an hour before each meal. Avoid sodas and sweetened juices that contain large amounts of sugar or harmful sweeteners;
- Avoid stressful situations if possible and look for ways to mentally overcome them. Some of the previous steps can help reduce the stress;
- Do not use your age as an excuse! There is no limit in age for sport. Older people should also try to maintain physical shape, if possible. Those at increased risk of fractures and injuries need to perform exercises that improve their balance.
The truth is that the practical application of these tips is not easy for many people. But remember that the successfulhealth is in your hands. With little discipline you can achieve amazing results.
Perfect health is not a medical conclusion, but a way of life: it means to be sensitive and responsive to all aspects of your body, mind and spirit; the success in reaching perfecthealth is an approach to life that each of us determine to achieve their highest potential for physical and mental well-being now and forever.
Have you been seeking an example of personal goals? You have come to the right place. Today, you will discover several examples of personal goals. As you read, discover the example of personal goals that meet your needs and help propel you forward to success, and achievement.
There are many areas of personal goals. These areas are great and important for every human being. There is a place for all of them. Without them we cant live fulfilling lives. It amazes me that so many people dont set goals. The problem then becomes the floating in life, and for you I dont want that to happen, so it gives me great please in having you here making use of what you read.
First let us look at example of personal goals, and then we will look at how to structure them so it will have more meaning in reaching them. Remember goal setting is pointless, it is utilizing goal setting for 2 purposes, the what, and where. All you want to know is what it is that you want, and where you need to get to. With the ultimate purpose to have that goal achieved.
Personal goals could include:
* Personal development goals
So how do we structure these goals? Let us consider a career goal. Let us say you want to become a doctor. Let us say this is a major leap. Now I dont fully know the intricacies of becoming a doctor! But, let us give it a go!
First we know that you just cant get up and call your self a doctor and start practicing! At least not in almost all countries! So let us lay this down.
I am a doctor practicing, and healing people. It is my job and I love it.
We have the goal in a present tense format, as if it has already been achieved. Next we have the purpose, and some emotion. This is a well formed goal.
We also want to have a date we want to get there by. Without a deadline, we would not focus enough to achievement. It would take decades to make progress. The deadline needs to be realistic. To become a doctor in 3 months is not possible. To be able to run a mile in 3 months is possible.
Next we need to know how to get there. Invariably education would be needed. Then from passing, actually getting the job. And that is the beginning, all what you strove for.
Another goal we may look at is a personal development goal. Let us say you want to learn French. I will put that down, as my sister has been in France for the last few days!
I know how to speak fluent French. I can communicate with French people and they understand what I am saying!
We may set this goal for 2 years time.
Again the same principles apply. Example of personal goals can include a number of different areas, however, now you have some example of personal goals that can help you formulate your own goals and get excited as you go forward to achieving them.
Carbide Punches And Carbide Pins Can Be Used To Remove Roll Pins The projects related to metalwork make use of materials like carbide punches, carbide pins and roll pins to join two pieces of metals together. Roll pins are solid pieces of metal that are fit tightly into the hole of the machine. There are moments when site works need to remove these roll pins when repairing and maintaining the machines and equipment. There are moments when these pins may be hard to extract and there are things that you can do about them. Using Punches To Deal With The Situation This procedure, which is considered as one of the easiest ways for roll pin removal, begins with exposing both ends of the pin. It is during these instances that workers use a small diameter drift pin punch such as carbine punches to be utilized. Professionals and workers have to make sure that the size of these drift punches is smaller than the hole that holds the roll pins. Workers who are doing this process should be careful about flattening the ends of the roll pins when the roll pin removal takes place. They can choose to use a small-sized hammer and employ short strokes so they can push the roll pins from their current placement using a small drift pin punch such as carbide punches.
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When Workers Drill And Tap
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There are some moments when the backside of the hole cannot be accessed or is blocked, or some roll pins are wedged tightly into place. In these cases, there is a need for workers to drill out the center of the roll pin using carbide drill bits. The cooling function of a penetrating oil can help you when drilling out, that is why it is important that you make sure you have applied this kind of oil. Afterwards, the center pin hole can be tapped so you can able to insert a bolt. Bolts are useful when pulling out the pins from the hole. You can choose to use a self-tapping hardened screw if the pin is more difficult to tap. Using a screwdriver should be able to let you drive the screw into place. You can use a slide hammer from your tool box to offer some knocks on the bolt for pin assembly from the precision hole. It is important to remember that you might be asked to alter the end of the slide hammer to fit the size of the screw with the roll pins and the bolts as well. Since you applied a considerable amount of oil into the roll pins, allow it to seep in. This oil can help loosen the roll pin. Drilling Out With The Help Of Carbide Bits, Pins And Punches When you use carbide bits, punches and pins, you can be able to remove the roll pins from being tight inside the roles due to rusts. Exercise extra caution when you do this.
Developing Personal Excellence
“With regard to excellence, it’s not enough to know, but we must try to have and use it.” Aristotle
Developing excellence doesn’t happen overnight. There are no quick and easy ways to develop excellence in our families, lives or careers. We can’t attend a seminar and as a result magically become excellent. We can’t read a book and have it all figured out in a day. And we can’t just tell ourselves we have excellence and then automatically possess it. Developing excellence takes time; it’s hard work and can take a lifetime to develop.
The word excellence is defined as the quality of excelling, possessing good qualities in high degree. It also means to excel in something. The word excellent means something is very good of its kind, eminently good or first class. In other words, something that is excellent is superior.
Excellence is not perfection. It’s not performing flawlessly or without mistakes. Excellence is a process and developing excellence is a mind-set, a mind-set that says, “I’m working toward excelling at something and I desire to possess good qualities in high degree.” It can also mean that I am striving to be excellent, a mind-set that says, “I want to be very good at what I do. I want my life and work to be superior.”
Developing excellence is a process in which we strive to excel and live a life full of good qualities. Excellence is not a one-time event – it’s a way of life. And to possess anything in high degree or to be first class, we need to practice.
In my own life I haven’t always liked to practice. This is probably the reason I was never good in sports. I always wanted to be good without the practice it took to get good. I wanted results without the work. Unfortunately, that’s not possible. To achieve anything in life we must work at it. We must practice it. And then we become excellent.
I’ve spent many years trying to do things quickly and wanting results fast. When I published my first book, I wrote it quickly, got it published and went out into the marketplace to begin selling it. I didn’t do any research, ask for any feedback or make a plan as to how I would sell it. I just did it.
And while I’m glad I did it, I would do it differently if I had it to do over again. I would have taken more time, asked for feedback and done research on books similar to mine. I would have asked more questions, taken more time to brainstorm and been willing to be critiqued.
Live Without Regret
Being excellent also means living without regret. And even though I would do it differently today, I do not regret publishing my first book. It’s been a huge success and I’m proud of my accomplishment.
I believe developing excellence means we learn from the past and use it to excel in our future endeavors. It’s not about bashing ourselves for past mistakes – that only keeps us from developing excellence. Developing excellence means learning from the past, deciding what worked and what could have worked better, and then applying our learnings to future projects.
Some of the things I learned from my first publishing experience can apply to all areas of my life.
I learned to slow down and think through any project before forging ahead.
I learned to let go of my need for immediate results.
I learned to look at the big picture before moving ahead.
I learned to ask for help and to get feedback from people I trust.
I learned to research my ideas and the resources available.
One of the neatest things about developing excellence is that we always have another chance – we’re never done. Developing excellence is a work in progress.
I now have an opportunity to apply what I learned from my first book and use the knowledge as I begin writing my second book. I did my homework this time. I asked for feedback, held a focus group and researched my market. I’ve also taken the time to let my ideas come to life and to really think about the focus of my book, its audience and the results I desire through this publishing effort.
It feels good to be able to put into practice some new ways of developing excellence. I know my business will never be perfect but I’m committed to continually developing excellence in business and in my personal life.
And as you take steps to further create excellence in you life, remember to practice, live without regret and take full advantage of second chances.
7 Keys to Developing Excellence
Take the time. Excellence takes time. Be patient with yourself, as results do not always come overnight.
Think through the process. No matter what type of project you are undertaking, be sure to think through the entire process. Look at the big picture or end results before diving in.
Be persistent. Keep moving forward despite setbacks. Things will get in the way – that’s life. Just keep moving ahead and you’ll develop more excellence in your life.
Ask for feedback. Receiving feedback is a great way to make sure your project will get the results you desire and it may keep you from going down the wrong path. Though receiving feedback is not always fun, just remember it will help you develop excellence.
Study excellence. Research your ideas as well as any experts in your field. There are people out there who have accomplished what you want to accomplish – study them. Learn how they accomplished their goals and look for the ways they were excellent.
Practice new techniques. Practice makes excellence. You will never be perfect at anything but you can be excellent at many things.
Celebrate small successes. It’s essential to recognize your achievements, no matter how small. If you have taken steps toward excellence development and have results – applaud yourself!
Professional development is essential for every individual, whether employed or not. It is vital for every business and professional organization to increase the knowledge and skills of their employees. They should strive to enhance the quality of performance, to ensure an improvement on the personal and professional front. A professional development program boosts the individual’s career, through travel, research, workshops and seminars and by working with professionals who are experienced. Professional development training courses are not only applicable to people in business or management, but are also important for professionals such as teachers, technicians, nurses and engineers.
Several professional development programmes offered to teachers in different parts of the world. If these programmes prepare the quality of teachers, then they can better serve the needs of the growing population. Methodology which we adopted for these programmes including seminars, training practices and surveys etc. Then we evaluate it through data which we collect from reflective journals, portfolios, classroom observations, group work, discussions and presentations
As a young teacher I yearned for the day when i would know my craft so well, be so competent, so experienced, and so powerful, that I would walk into any classroom without feeling afraid. (P. J.Palmer, 1998, p. 57).
At the secondary level many teachers with strong background in mathematics but they did not courses in probability and statistics as part of their preparatory degrees and there is no any curriculum work in their pre-service education courses. There is a major problem that teachers have not much knowledge even about their own subjects. Professional development of teachers is now recognized as an important component of policies which enhanced interest in research that identifies feature and importance of effective professional learning. Today funds are allocated to promote professional development programmes, through this it provides opportunities to learn and we all know that great teachers create great students and many school going student’s achievements related to their teachers. So it is critical to pay close attention to how we train and support both new and experienced teachers? So Ongoing professional development keeps teachers up-to-date on new research that how children learn, emerging technology tools for the classroom and new resources.
According to Darling-Hammond (1994) teachers professional development is a process of enhancing teachers’ status through increased awareness and an expanding knowledge base. Interpretation of teacher’s professional development as an investigation of their practice is shared by other researchers.
With the passage of time, many societies changes their education system, they are making educational reforms and the most important part of these reforms is Professional development for teachers, they are finally got a point that only through teachers they can improve their society, they can enhance the potential of their new generation. In Pakistan during 2005-6, the professional development programmes were piloted in 100 schools in three Towns of the district Tandlianwala, Samundari and Faisalabad City and is now being developed in 500 schools up to 2008. In Pakistan there are a lot of teacher training institutes but unfortunately these are not sufficient to fulfill the demands of untrained teachers. Warwick and Reimers (1995) refers to some of the factors which are responsible for falling the standard of education and these are unmotivated faculty and students, inactive dean, and a lack of supervision. In institution of Pakistan the professional development is consider with knowledge, so the person gives full attention to acquire knowledge through text books and lectures, but the professional development means acquiring expertise in the relevant field. Just to know about anything is not enough but doing that work is a part of professional development. Professional development is like a model which take cares of knowledge, skills and attitude and in other words professional development programmes should involve head, hand and heart.
- To update experienced and qualified curricular staff to maintain awareness of new developments in learning and teaching.
- To support policy making, planning, implementation and evaluation of teacher education and professional development in Pakistan.
- To recommend, what are the challenges that are faced public and private universities of Pakistan for effective professional development.
- To evaluate and analyses training provision to promote continuous improvement.
- To update experienced and qualified curricular staff to maintain awareness of new developments in learning and teaching.
The major purpose of this study is the need assessment for professional development of teachers in Pakistan. Need assessment is that process which gathers the need of individual, groups, communities or societies. If we use the process of need assessment in education then we identify the needs of student in particular subject, to determine the weakness of student’s achievement, to determine the need of training for teachers and to determine the needs of local, regional and national educational system.
The worth of professional development for teacher is very important role, it improves the student’s learning. Professional development creates educational reforms that not only update the skills and knowledge of teacher but it also enhance the student’s productivity and achievements. In many participating countries 89% of teachers are engaged in professional development. Only 11% teachers have no concern with it. Out of 4 teacher only 1 teacher did not participate in professional development in Denmark, the Slovak republic and Turkey.
Ostern and Kott Kemp (1993) argue that :
· Teachers need professional growth opportunities.
· Working together improves professional growth or development.
· Explain or describe their own standards for more responsibilities.
Professional development programmes are efforts to bring change in the class room practices of teachers, in their attitude, in their beliefs and in the learning outcome of students. (Griffin, 1982, P.2)
Despite of all the importance of professional development , the research indicate the ineffectiveness of most programmes, majority of programmes fails because teachers are not too much interested in these programmes , they just take part in professional development for getting certification, and they want to show that they are better teachers. (Guskey, 1986)
Teachers attracts to professional development because they wants to expand their knowledge, their skills and abilities. They want to contribute their knowledge and skills and enhance their effectiveness. But its not enough to get knowledge and skills, the major role of teacher is now to implement these practices ,and also enhance the knowledge of students, and professional development are specific and certain rather than vague or general and practice ideas that directly related to day by day practices in their classrooms. (Fullen and Miles, 1992)
Jaworski (1996) says,
Pakistani culture, for example, encourages deference to older, wiser and more eminent members of the society. Education is situated in a hierarchical power structure where curricula are defined externally to schools and success is measured by examination performance (pg.69).
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHER CHANGE...
(source: Thomas R.Guskey, 200, Vol8)
Professional development in a broader way refers to the development of person in his or her professional role. More specifically we can say that professional development is a professional growth which teacher achieves in gaining increased experience and examine his or her professional career systematically. Professional development includes formal experience as well as informal experiences. Formal experiences such as attending seminars, professional meetings and workshops etc, and informal experiences such as watching television documentaries and reading professional publications etc. (Glatthorn, 1995, P. 41)
TYPES OF TRAINING…
Diploma in Higher education (DHE)
This kind of training arranged for two months during summer vacations for consecutive three years for teachers. Those teachers who participate in it, and complete their training programmes of six month in three years, diploma in higher education with two increments should be awarded.
Certificate in higher education (CHE)
This kind of training arranged for three months for lecturer who are selected for universities and colleges.This training is compulsory for each teacher. Main concept of this training is to enhance the practical skills.
Periodic Training ( PT )…
This is a one month training for teachers to enhance their capabilities, their knowledge and their competencies. This is a periodic training which held after every five years and teacher should have brilliant chance to improve their skills.
(Source: Naveed Sultana, 2004)
STANDARDS FOR REQUIRED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT…
There are some professional standards which we discuss here.
Standard-1: Subject Matter Knowledge… Teacher understand the basic concept, theories, history,latest trends in national and international level and process of getting knowledge of that subject which they are going to teach.
Standard-2: Human Growth and Development… Teacher understand how students acquire knowledge, skills and develop habit of mind. How to identify the development abilities of student and provide opportunities to that support their intellectual, emotional and physical development.
Standard-3: Knowledge of Islamic ethical values/Social life skills… Teacher understand the Islamic ethical values and practices in the light of Quran and Sunnah, and promote it. The values which are globally accepted are being promoted.
Standard-4: Instructional planning and strategies… Teacher understand the instructional planning and design short term as well as long term plans which is based on student’s needs and development progress and then develop a strategy to achieve these goals.
Standard-5: Assessment… Teacher use different types of assessment for evaluating how students learn, how they implement their knowledge in their practical life. The result of such kind of assessment improve teaching and learning.
Standard-6: Learning Environment… Teacher creates a supportive and respective learning environment that encourage student’s positive social interaction in learning and self motivation.
Standard-7: Effective communication and use of technology… Teacher use verbal or non verbal kind of communication techniques for supportive interaction with students. Teacher also use technologies in class rooms and laboratories activities.
Standarad-8: Collaboration… Teacher build a relationship with student’s parents and their guardian to support student’s learning.
(Source: Policy and planning wing, Ministry of education, 2009)
TYPES OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT…
There are some types of professional development..
· Education conference or seminars.
· Qualification programmers.
· Observation visits to other school.
· Participation in a network of teachers.
· Individual or collaborative research.
· Mentoring or peer observation and coaching.
· Reading professional literature.
· Engaging in informal dialogue with peet.
(Source: Naveed Sultana, 2004)
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT…
There are number of factors which were identified as importance for its success. Several of these factors are described below.
· Continual development of lead trainer.. Regular training workshops and seminar which is based on new practices and knowledge encourage the trainer to participate in these special conferences and seminarswhich enabled them to keep up to date with new technologies. This knowledge enhancement is not only benefited for teachers but also for these learners who learn from these teachers.
· Sharing knowledge and skills… Teacher learns from others teachers in their institutions and training centers. Teacher gain confidence after using these tools in class rooms which they have learned.
· Collaboration and partnership… Teacher development programmes build a partnership among teachers, trainers, supervisors and university exporters. These networks facilitate sharing of knowledge which lead to further improvement.
· Support from Principal and administrative… It is important for principal and administrative that they provide support and opportunities that they enable them to apply these knowledge and technologies which they learn from training.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION…
Study is helpful in providing ground realities concerning the execution and implementation of the program. Findings of the study will be helpful to develop a comprehensive plan for further improvement in the universities.Majority of respondent stated that professional training of univeristy teachers is necessary for their professional development in latest knowledge, skills, teaching techniques, technology, evaluating techniques and social, administrative skills. Only training enhance the mental and social development.
- Lack of appropriate training programmes and methods.
The major problem is the lack of appropriate training programmes. One of the teacher said that some teachers wants to learn and enhance their knowledge but there is not sufficient programmes to meet their needs and they unable to enhance their capabilities and the methods of training is also not good, because the level of understanding of every person is changed, some people wants to enhance their knowledge orally and some wants to use text books and other material.
- Lack of modern techniques.
There is lack of modern techniques, if teacher able to understand and work with these techniques and can enhance the productivity of students but unfortunately he is not be able to do like that because there is no enhancement in technology. In university arrangement of multimedia is another a big problem, if teacher wants to prepare his lecture on this new technique that he can enhance the knowledge of students and provide a know how about this useful technique but there is a lack of multimedia and teacher cannot teach their students with their own will.
- Lack of research and Text Book knowledge.
It’s a very natural phenomenon today that student just based on text book knowledge. Because in training programmes trainers just provide work books, teacher guide and audio cassettes, through this teacher enhance their skills but there is not practical work, there is no any research, they do not train the teachers properly that how to do research and what is the benefits so like that teacher teach their students, they provide them notes and other material to learn, they do not encourage them to do research for enhancing their knowledge.
- Lack of communication and collaboration.
Respondent says that there is a lack of communication and collaboration. Teachers don’t want to discuss the problems with other members of department. One of the teacher said that there is a communication gap which create a hindrance to improve their quality.
- Time management problem.
Mostly the training held in summer vacations. So sometime it happens that many teachers are busy with their families, get to gathers, and many times mostly teachers are in abroad for PHD or M.Phill so they cannot attend these training programmes.
- Lack of evaluation techniques.
There is no training in test constructions, marking and analyzing the results, due to this many teachers don’t aware of evaluation techniques which could help to evaluate the student as a whole.
- Lack of resources and budget.
That’s the major problem that there is a lack of resources and budget. Government sometime does not involve in these training programme due to budget problems, and teacher who wants to get knowledge he unable to get it. One of the teacher said that limited resources creates a great hindrance, like teachers do not have proper books facilities, the books which is available in libraries that sometimes are not relevant with his subjects. There is a lack of net facility, teacher cannot search their material for enhancing the skills of students.
- Teacher should demonstrate the use of effectiveness of modern methods and techniques of teaching in the classrooms. The advance technology like multimedia and video conferencing should be used to improve teaching.
- Teacher should be trained in evaluation and measurement techniques. These techniques remove the deficiencies of students.
- Teacher’s professional development must be as a long term process which begins with the initial stages and ends when the teacher retires from the profession.
- Teacher should create a friendly learning environment in which student easily learn everything which teacher wants to teach. Through this friendly learning environment students will not hesitate to ask every problem which he or she is facing during their studies programmes.
- Proper training programme should be held for teacher’s professional development. In training programmes explanatory printed text, work books, teacher guide, audio cassettes, video programmes which demonstrating various teachers models, teachers kit, practical work books should be included to make teacher more competent, effective and knowledgeable.
- Actions researches should be encouraged in the classes. Those teachers who promote new technology and methods should rewarded properly.Provide the resources that teacher can enhance the knowledge of students. Seminars should be held after every two month